Breeding of groundnuts for drought tolerance may enhance production in water deficit areas. The current study intended to determine heritability estimation and association of harvest index and SPAD (Soil Plant Analysis Development) Chlorophyll Meter Reading (SCMR) with some yield contributing traits by using 30 groundnut genotypes planted under two watering regimes i.e., T1= watering to plants at 5 days of interval (Well Watered), T2= watering to plants after 10 days of interval (Water Deficit). The main aim was to accelerate the breeding programs of groundnut genotypes tolerant to drought. Triplicated split plot design was used under controlled water conditions at Groundnut Research Station, Attock, Pakistan. Data was collected on plant height, number of pod/plant and pod yield/plant, harvest index (HI), SCMR at 50, 70 and 90 DAS. Heritability in broad sense was calculated for plant height, harvest index, pod yield, number of pod/plant and SCMR values. Results confirmed that number of pods/plant, SCMR at 70 DAS and HI were considerably correlated to pod yield/plant in both water deficit treatments. Harvest index exhibited highest heritability estimated in both treatments (0.65 & 0.51respectively). Due to SCMR at 70 DAS, number of pods/plant and harvest index having medium heritability and significant association with pod yield under water deficit condition, could be handy criterion in selections of groundnut genotypes in drought regimes
Due to the versatile nature of nanoparticles, recently their applications have been extended to plant sciences which were limited to the animal sciences in the past. Nanoparticle-mediated transformation methods for plants can overcome the problems of conventional transformation methods. The present study was conducted to use Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) to carry foreign genes into Nicotiana tabacum. Different characterization techniques such as XRD, FTIR and SEM confirmed the formation of MSNs. To evaluate the uptake of MSNs in the plants, protoplasts were used as source material. Plasmid p35SGUSINT, containing β- glucuronidase (GUS) as gene of interest was used for coating of nanoparticles. These DNA coated MSNs were incubated with protoplasts to evaluate the ability of MSNs to be carried inside the plant cells and to deliver foreign gene inside the plants. Faint GUS gene expression was observed in protoplasts incubated with DNA coated MSNs, treated with PEG and sonicated. Nanoparticles have the potential to carry and transfer the foreign genes in plants. This method can be further developed and tried for chloroplast transformation.
In recent years Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) enabled Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) have gained popularity as alternative to private WANs. MPLS-VPNs are more reliable, secure, scalable and cost effective than other candidate solutions. Traffic engineering (TE) is supported over MPLS, which allows network organizations to associate a LSP-Label Switched Path with the physical path they select. In this article, we present an implementation of traffic engineering over an Internet Service Provider (ISP)-based MPLS-VPN. We will start by defining the features, modes and preconditions for traffic engineering. Then we will explain what information needs to be disseminated to all the TE enabled routers and how the underlying routing protocol is modified to send it. Then we will define and configure MPLS TE tunnels. Finally, we will show how to achieve link protection in TE supported MPLS-VPN.
Time series is a series of observations in chronological order. The argument or predictor is time which may or may not be the time of clock, i.e., it could well be simply the instance represented by indices 1, 2, 3…which is certainly true for a sequence of notes in a raga depicting its melodic structure with some musical sense of completeness. The dependent variable is the pitch characterizing the note. The present study shows how an ARIMA model can effectively analyze the melodic structure of a North Indian raga. While the model itself is reserved for prediction, the lag of unity in the model also suggests a Markov chain of order one which can then be used to simulate the raga sequence on a computer. In this way our study supports both prediction and composition.
Cloud computing is very emerging technology and have economical computation over the current infrastructure. Cloud computing provides the services on the basis of as you pay as you go. Privacy and security is still at top level risk in cloud data management environment. Privacy of the data is affected as cloud users have not fully aware about the location of the data kept on servers. Data segregation is another problem during the storage of data. Identity management is a big issue that is faced by the cloud users. In the research paper we will propose a model to improve the data security and privacy in the cloud environment. Single Sign On uses the different identity management methods to enhance the privacy and security of the cloud users like OAuth, OpenId, and SAML etc. Securing the identity management is very effective method to secure your authorization and access management that makes surety to providing the secure cloud data management environment.
A fast and accurate technique is needed to study the physicochemical properties of respective liquid pollutants. Reversed-flow gas chromatography (RF-GC), which is a sub-technique of inverse gas chromatography, is an experimental arrangement simulating a simple model for the action of liquid pollutants in laboratory scale. By using a commercial gas chromatograph and an appropriate mathematical analysis, kinetic parameters such as rate coefficients, kc and diffusion coefficients, D of analyzed liquid were calculated. In this study, the experimental values of kinetic parameters were found coincide with calculated values. Thus, these physicochemical properties of the liquid experimented will contribute to the references for future research in the area of environment, food, agriculture as well as physical sciences.
In this paper we present a new feasible direction method to find all efficient extreme points for bicriterion linear fractional programming problems. This method is based on the conjugate gradient projection method. An initial feasible point is used to generate all efficient extreme points for this problem through a sequence of feasible directions of movements Since methods based on vertex information may have difficulties as the problem size increases we expect this method to be less sensitive to problem size. A simple production example is given to clarify this method
Atherosclerosis is a condition caused by lipid build up and inflammation in the arteries, so hyperlipidemia is the major reason for atherosclerosis. Kidney was found to be negatively affected by hyperlipidemia which leads to impaired functions of it. Vitamin E and L-carnitine have well-known lipid-lowering and antioxidative activities. Triton WR 1339 is a non ionic detergent which induce severe hyperlipidemia by inhibition of lipoprotein lipase. The present study evaluates the protective role of vitamin E and L-carnitine on the kidney in atherosclerosis and detect the most effective choice for protection against atherosclerosis; vitamin E, L-carnitine or a combination of both. A total of 80 albino male rats were divided into 8 groups (10 rats for each group) as control (G1), Triton (G2), L-carnitine (G3), Triton+L-carnitine (G4), Vitamin E (G5), Triton+Vitamin E (G6), L-carnitine+Vitamin E (G7) and Triton+L-carnitine+Vitamin E (G8). Data showed a significant increase in levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, Urea, Creatinine, Uric acid, renal GST and MDA in G2 when compared with G1, while HDL cholesterol, total thiol and Catalase data showed a significant decrease in G2 when compared with G1. Treatment with L-carnitine or/and vitamin E helps in improving the adverse effect of triton and all our biochemical results confirms this finding. So the present study recommends all people to keep L-carnitine and vitamin E in all diets to be protected against atherosclerosis.
Muntok Bay, East Bangka Indonesia is a site of candidate of the first Indonesia nuclear power plant (NPP). Preoperational NPP, monitoring of 137Cs are be performing for practices to establish ‘baseline’ environmental radionuclides concentrations. On other hand Indonesia has following IAEA RAS/7/021 Project on marine benchmark study on possible impact of the Fukushima radioactive release in Asia Pacific regions. Data of 137Cs on Indonesia marine environment must be obtained to evaluate the extent and the possible impact. Result of analysis shown concentration of 137Cs in sediments, seawater and marine biotas were range from
The study examines the connection among public policy variables and economic growth in context of an economy of Pakistan. Theoretical and empirical literature has ever been showing a concern towards relationship among public policy variables and economic growth. Literature suggests mixed results regarding association of public policy variables and economic growth. The study empirically investigates the relationship between economic growth and public policy variables i.e. budget deficit, defense expenditures, public investment, private investment and level of education for Pakistan over the period 1980-2010. Time series econometric techniques such as Johansen Co integration, Vector Error Correction Model (VECM), Breusch-Godfray Langrage Multiplier (LM) test and Granger Causality test have been employed. The results of Johansen Co Integration test suggest the existence of long run equilibrium relationship among the variables. The results of VECM indicate that error correction terms for all the variables are statistically significant which show that public policy variables adjust to sustain the long run equilibrium growth. The results of LM test show that there is no autocorrelation in the series. The results of Granger Causality test show that causality runs from defense expenditure and private investment towards growth while a bi-directional causality is found between public investment-growth connections. The results of CUSUM and CUSUMSQ show the stability of functional relationship tested in this study which means that model is an effective instrument for policy making. So, a rise or fall in public policy variables will cause and have caused changes in economic growth in long run.
Previous studies on capital structure in Pakistan have reported evidence in support of the pecking order theory (POT). However, this evidence is largely based on testing one dimensional relationship between leverage ratios and firms’ profitability. The objective of this paper is to extensively test the pecking order theory in Pakistan with well-known pecking order testing models. Specifically, we use a sample of 338 firms listed on the Karachi Stock Exchange from the year 2000 to 2009 and test POT with models suggested by Shyam-Sunder and Myers, Frank and Goyal, Watson and Wilson and Rajan and Zingales. Results of these models indicate that evidence in support of POT is mixed in Pakistan. However, strong support is found for POT when leverage ratios are regressed on profitability ratio, along with a set of control variables. This discrepancy in the results of the two sets of models needs further investigation, as well as care in interpreting the results of existing studies on capital structure in Pakistan.
The requirement for renewable energy sources is very high in recent years due to the acute energy crisis. Photovoltaic power is regarded as a chief source of energy in several countries with high solar power density. The main obstruction for reach of solar PV systems is their low efficiency and high capital cost. Therefore, controlling Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) for the solar array has become an essential aspect in a PV generation as Maximum Power Point (MPP) changes with the solar radiation and temperature. In this paper, Perturbation and Observation (P&O) algorithm is used for maximum power point tracking as it has the potential to adjust the solar array reference voltage to attain maximum power point. P&O system has certain limitation which is overcome in this paper with the utilization of fuzzy based P&O. But, this produces oscillations in voltage conversion. To overcome this difficulty, a better converter should be used in voltage conversion. Cuk converter is one of the existing efficient converters in PV systems. One of main drawback in cuk converter is more duty cycles are required for better conversion and some oscillations will persist in voltage conversion. To overcome these drawbacks, hybrid boost mode cuk converter is used in this paper. In hybrid boost mode cuk converter, step up structure is used which will result in better conversion ratio and better damping of oscillations. The main advantage of this proposed system is that the efficiency of the hybrid boost mode cuk converter is increased. The system is simulated under different climatic conditions. The simulation model of controller is built in MATLAB / Simulink background, and the simulation result shows the reduction in oscillations and improvement in power conversion.